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Capnocytophaga species

Capnocytophaga spp. are long, thin gram-negative bacilli that are slow growing, with gliding ability on agar media. They are facultatively anaerobic and require enrichment with CO2 (5-10%) for optimum growth (capnophilic). The organisms grow best at 35 to 37 °C on either blood or chocolate agar. They do not grow on MacConkey agar Many Capnocytophaga germs are normal bacteria commonly found in the mouths of people, dogs, and cats. These germs sometimes cause opportunistic infections, which means under the right conditions they can cause an infection, such as in a person with a weakened immune system. People with weakened immune systems include those who Capnocytophagaは動物やヒトの口腔内などに常在す るグラム陰性桿菌であり,菌名はCapnophilic(二酸 化炭素要求性)に由来し,1979年に新設された1).現 在,8菌種が知られており,Capnocytophaga canimorsu Capnocytophaga属菌は動物やヒトの口腔内などに常 在する通性嫌気性のグラム陰性桿菌である.本菌属には 現在8つの種が含まれており,このうちCapnocytopha- ga canimorsusとCapnocytophaga cynodegmiの2菌種 は主にイヌやネコの口腔内に常在し,動物伵傷の起炎菌 として重要である.一方Capnocytophaga sputigena, Capnocytophaga gingivalis,Capnocytophaga granulosa, Capnocytophaga haemolytica,Capnocytophaga ochra- cea,Capnocytophaga leadbetteriの6菌種はヒトの口腔 内に常在する1).C. sputigenaは特に幼少期からヒトの 口腔内に常在し歯周病の原因として着目されているほか, 易感染宿主での敗血症などの報告が散見される.しかし 呼吸器検体から培養された症例は海外でわずか1例報告 されているのみで,まれと考え報告する Includes 8 different species: Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Capnocytophaga granulosa, Capnocytophaga haemolytica, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Capnocytophaga leadbetteri (isolated oral cavity of humans) and Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi (isolated from the oral cavity of animals)

Capnocytophaga species are filamentous, thin, gram-negative rods with a tapered end (fusiform) that are capnophilic, requiring increased levels of carbon dioxide for ideal growth that often takes 48 hours on blood agar plates Capnocytophagasp.はヒトやイヌ,ネコの口腔内常在 菌であり,ペットによる咬傷や掻傷を受けた後に菌血症 や敗血症,心内膜炎,髄膜炎,さらに全身性の壊死性病 変を起こすことが報告されている1).今回われわれは

Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fastidious, slow-growing, Gram-negative rod of the genus Capnocytophaga. It is a commensal bacterium in the normal gingival flora of canine and feline species, but can cause illness in humans. Transmission may occur through bites, licks, or even close proximity with animals A1 イヌ・ネコの口腔内に常在している3種の細菌、カプノサイトファーガ・カニモルサス (C. canimorsus) 、カプノサイトファーガ・カニス( C. canis )及びカプノサイトファーガ・サイノデグミ( C. cynodegmi )を原因とする感染症です

Capnocytophaga species - Infectious Disease and

Capnocytophaga in periodontics ppt

How Do People Get Infected with Capnocytophaga

  1. Die Capnocytophaga sind eine Gattung von Bakterien. Sie zählt zu der Familie der Flavobacteriaceae. Die Typart ist Capnocytophaga ochracea
  2. Signs and Symptoms of Capnocytophaga Infection People who are infected with Capnocytophaga can have a range of signs and symptoms such as: Blisters around the bite wound within hours of the bite Redness, swelling, draining pus, or pain at the bite woun
  3. In vitro susceptibility of Capnocytophaga species to antimicrobial agents Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987 Feb;31(2):331-2. doi: 10.1128/aac.31.2.331. Authors P M Hawkey, S D Smith, J Haynes, H Malnick, S W Forlenza.
  4. Capnocytophaga is a genus of nine species of bacteria found in human and animal mouths and gums, all of which cause human infection. Capnocytophaga ochracea, gingivalis, and sputigena exist in humans and can cause pharyngeal and respiratory infections from the person's own flora
  5. Parent taxon: Capnocytophaga Leadbetter et al. 1982 Assigned by: Frandsen EV, Poulsen K, Kononen E, Kilian M. Diversity of Capnocytophaga species in children and description of Capnocytophaga leadbetteri sp. nov. and Capnocytophaga genospecies AHN8471..

Capnocytophaga 感染症10例の検

Four Capnocytophaga strains from blood cultures of immunocompromised patients with malignant disease and the type strains of three Capnocytophaga species were examined and compared to strains representing five other genera that are hard to differentiate from Capnocytophaga. With three rapid identifi • Another species of Capnocytophaga, C. cynodegmi, can also be transmitted from animals. Infection with this species is even less commonly reported, and is typically much less severe than that caused by The genus Capnocytophaga includes three bacterial species: Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, and Capnocytophaga gingivalis.Although occasionally found in soil and water, the predominant natural habitat of Capnocytophaga species is the human oropharynx. species is the human oropharynx カプノサイトファーガ-カニモルサス感染症で見られる症状は、発熱、倦怠感、腹痛、吐き気、頭痛などです。犬や猫に咬まれてから発病までの期間(潜伏期)は1-8日です。重症例では、敗血症や髄膜炎を起こし、播種性血管内凝固症候群(DIC)や敗血性ショック、多臓器不全に進行して死に至る. Eight strains of <i>Capnocytophaga sputigena </i>and 2 strains of <i>Capnocytophaga canimorsus </i>were isolated. All strains were susceptible to piperacillin, imipenem, meropenem, doxycycline, minocycline, and rifampicin, but resistant to gentamicin, polymyxin B, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Susceptibility to other antibiotics varied

UpToDate Contents 全文を閲覧するには購読必要です。 To read the full text you will need to subscribe. 1. カプノサイトファーガ・カニモルサス感染症 capnocytophaga 2. イヌおよびネコの咬傷による軟部組織感染 soft tissue infections due to dog and cat bite Capnocytophaga species are susceptible against ß-lactams []. Therefore, first-line treatment of proposed C. canimorsus infections are ß-lactams, while multiple other antibiotic agents have been proven effective []. The mos

もしくは髄液からCapnocytophaga speciesが検出された患者さ ん 研究方法 臨床背景、治療、経過、合併症、予後などの臨床像についてデー タを集積して解析します。 研究期間 平成27年6月30日より平成29年3月31日まで 研究計画 Capnocytophaga canimorsus can be a virulent pathogen, whereas C. cynodegmi is of low virulence. Heterogeneity within these species, their frequency in dogs, and pathogenicity factors are largely unknown. Strains from blood cultures from patients presumptively identified as C. canimorsus ( n = 25) and as C. cynodegmi by rrs analysis ( n = 4), blood cultures from dogs ( n = 8), blood cultures. 3) Zangenah S et al.: Whole genome sequencing identifies a novel species of the genus Capnocytophaga isolated from dog and cat bite wounds in humans, Sci Rep, 2016; 6: 22919. 4) 鈴木 道雄,他:「 Capnocytophaga canimorsus および Capnocytophaga cynodegmi 国内分離株の簡易同定キットを用いた同定法の検討」,日本臨床微生物学雑誌,2011; 21 : 276-280

Capnocytophaga Species: Increased Resistance of Clinical Isolates to Serum Bactericidal Action Mark E. Wilson, Judith T. Jonak-Urbanczyk, From the Department of Oral Biology, State University of Paul M. Bronson, Kathy Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a dog oral commensal that causes rare but severe infections in humans. C. canimorsus was recently shown to be endowed with a capsular polysaccharide implicated in resistance to the innate immune system of the host. Here, we developed the first C. canimorsus capsular serotyping scheme. We describe nine different serovars (A to I), and this serotyping scheme allowed. Capnocytophaga species are a rare cause of bacteremia in patients with neutropenia and cancer. The frequency with which these bacteria have been isolated in large patient series ranges from 0.5% to 3% [1, 2] Capnocytophaga: [ kap″no-si-tof´ah-gah ] a genus of anaerobic, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease; they closely resemble Bacteroides ochraceus Capnocytophaga species が血液・髄液培養から検出された患者さんを対象に、通常の診療で得られたデータを収集・解析することにより、Capnocytophaga species感染症の臨床像を明らかにし、危険因子や治療方針を考える上で参考になる.

Capnocytophaga species - GlobalRP

  1. Thus, Capnocytophaga species may cause disease in both nonimmunocompromised and immunocompromised hosts. Isolation of this organism should suggest an oral source for infection. This content is only available as a Topic:.
  2. Capnocytophaga species constitute part of the normal oral microflora of humans and animals (), and are often considered as opportunistic pathogens, that was confirmed by recent studies of microbial profiles using the human ora
  3. Retrospective review of isolates of Capnocytophaga, a genus of capnophilic gram-negative bacilli, referred to the Massachusetts State Laboratory Institute in Boston revealed 31 patients with infection due to Capnocytophaga, 16 in nonimmunocompromised hosts. These infections included empyema (three patients), lung abscess (one), sinusitis (one), conjunctivitis (three), subphrenic abscess (one.
  4. Capnocytophaga species and preterm birth: case series and review of the literature E. Lopez) Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris Descartes) AP‐HP, Groupe Hospitalier Cochin‐Saint Vincent de Paul, Service de Médecine.

Capnocytophagaは通性嫌気性のグラム陰性桿菌であり, 二酸化炭素存在下で発育が促進される. 本菌は, 鞭毛をもたないが, 滑走運動を行うことにより, 平板培地上で広がりをもつ特徴的なコロニーを形成する. Capnocytophagaは口腔内から分離. Article Capnocytophaga sputigena bacteremia in a neutropenic host Detailed information of the J-GLOBAL is a service based on the concept of Linking, Expanding, and Sparking, linking science and technology information which. Capnocytophaga Species: Infections in Nonimmunocompromised and Immunocompromised Hosts David M. Parenti and David R. Snydman From the Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, New England Medica The prevalence of Capnocytophaga canimorsus and C. cynodegmi in the oral cavities of 120 dogs and 80 cats was investigated using species-specific PCR and culture methods between 2011 and 2012. The PCR detected the C. canimorsus gene in 62% of the dogs and 49% of the cats, whereas the C. cynodegmi gene was detected in 82% of the dogs and 86% of the cats

Capnocytophaga - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Capnocytophaga & Loss of Appetite & Tetanus Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Dog Bite. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search Species Differentiation Because of the phenotypical similarity of Capnocytophaga species, it proved difficult to speciate the three isolates by conventional techniques used in most hospital microbiology laboratories (Table 2.) I Capnocytophaga infections after bite traumas have not been reported, and only two cases of a possible pathogenic role of the bacterium have been documented. In one instance, Capnocytophaga spp. were isolated from a case of chronic sinusitis and rhinitis, and - based on DNA sequencing - a strain closely related to C. canimorsus and C. epidegmi was identified from nasal discharge Capnocytophaga ochracea is a gram-negative fusiform-to-rod shaped bacterium that grows in clumps and moves by gliding despite having no flagella (1). This capnophilic aerotolerant anaerobe is found in the oral cavity of humans and contributes to early plaque formation on teeth by being a physical intermediate link between several Streptococcus species and F. nucleatum (2)

Capnocytophaga canimorsus - Wikipedi

Request PDF | On Apr 18, 2011, Kazuyuki Ishihara and others published Capnocytophaga | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate We use cookies to make interactions with our. Capnocytophaga is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria.Normally found in the oropharyngeal tract of mammals, they are involved in the pathogenesis of some animal bite wounds and periodontal diseases. [2] Taxonomy The term Capnocytophaga comes from capno- for its dependence on CO 2 and cytophaga for its flexibility and mobility shift (gliding motility) Human oral Capnocytophaga species have been only rarely described as a cause of sepsis in patients following stem cell or marrow transplantation, and pneumonia has not been reported in this.

Colony morphology

Capnocytophagaの酸性およびアルカリ性ホスファターゼ II Capnocytophaga ochraceaからの両酵素の単離,精製とその性質 Acid and alkaline phosphatases of Capnocytophaga species. II. Isolation, purification, and characterization of. Capnocytophaga species 感染症患者の診療経験がある施設(当施設もこれに該当する)が、症 例報告書を送付し、記入後、研究責任機関である自治医科大学附属さいたま医療センター血 液科に返送する。この症例報告書には、個人を. Bacteria of the genus Capnocytophaga form part of the resident oral flora in children and adults. They are recognized as opportunistic pathogens of various extra-oral infections. The significance of individual species in.

カプノサイトファーガ感染症に関するQ&A|厚生労働省 - mhl

Capnocytophaga is a commensal species considered as an opportunistic pathogen. This bacterium is involved in different types of infections the severity of which depends on the immune status of the patient. In the literature, cases. Capnocytophaga cynodegmi in dogs and cats de-termined by using a newly established species-specific PCR. Vet. Microbiol. 144: 172 176. 4) Bobo, R. A., et al. 1976. A previously unde-scribed Gram-negative bacillus causin Capnocytophaga is a rare bacteria found in the saliva of canines. C. canimorsus is present in the oral cavity of 67-86% of dogs. In vitro growth requires specialized media. Patients who are immunocompromised are at greatest risk for infection. There are no clinical trials examining the duration of antibiotics. Capnocytophaga species is a very rare fastidious, slow growing gram negative rod.

Capnocytophaga sputigena

A risk ratio was calculated for each species from the frequency of their occurrence in large vs in small lesions. Results. Fifty-one patients, 19 with abscesses and 32 with infiltrates, were evaluated. Overall, the radiographical lesio Capnocytophaga species isolate from supra-gingival calculus. J. Dent. Res. 70: 1048 1051. 2) fifl cŁŒŠŸŽı łœš 1993šž €¡˜v¢1˘ Capnocytophaga sputigena)€Aš-_A£⁄¥67: 622 628. 3) ˜ ƒ ¤'H«‹›š 1990šfixfl m -L†A1 €Aˇ1 š-_A£⁄

UpToDat

Capnocytophaga spp. can be readily identified in the clinical laboratory when the proper media, incubation environment, Clinical Microbiology Newsletter i February 1, 1985 Vol. 7, No. 3 Capnocytophaga: An Opportunistic Pathogen. Proteomes - Capnocytophaga leadbetteri ))) All None Overview Components Publications Map to UniProtKB (2,127) Unreviewed (2,127) TrEMBL Overview Proteins i 2,127 Gene count i - Download one protein sequence per gene i.

カプノサイトファーガ・カニモルサス - Wikipedi

  1. Taxonomie Le terme Capnocytophaga vient de « capno » pour sa dépendance en CO 2 et « cytophaga » pour sa flexibilité et sa mobilité par glissement (gliding motility).Il appartient à la famille des Flavobacteriaceae, ordre des Flavobactériales, classe des Flavobacteria, phylum des Bacteroidetes et domaine des Bacteria
  2. Other Capnocytophaga species may be part of animal oral flora, or normal human oral flora/dental plaques, e.g., C. sputigena, C. canis, C. endodontalis sp. nov. and C. gingivalis. Organisms have a long, fusiform appearance on gram stain, making it distinctive enough to consider morphologic identification pending cx results
  3. 造血器腫瘍治療中の好中球減少期に生じたCapnocytophaga speciesによる菌血症 村上 紘一, 森 毅彦, 加藤 淳, 清水 隆之, 小橋 澄子, 櫻井 政寿, 杉田 香代子, 長谷川 直樹, 村田 満, 岡本 真一郎 臨床血液 58 ( 3 ) 210 - 215 2017

Japan's largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societie Capnocytophaga Species (AntiMicrobe.org) Free Safety Data Sheet Index- Capnocytophaga spp. (MSDSOnline) Capnocytophaga spp. -Pathogen Safety Data Sheet (PHA of Canada Capnocytophaga species細胞壁ペプチドグリカンの化学構造と免疫生物活性 著者 花形哲夫 [著] 出版年月日 1990 請求記号 UT51-92-M351 書誌ID(国立国会図書館オンラインへのリンク) 000000252342 DOI 10.11501/3089823 公開範 admission at the previous hospital showed Capnocytophaga species, and the PCR results also detected C. canimorsus. The antibiotic therapy was changed to ampicillin-sulbactam on day 10 and continued to day 14. A disintegri

Species: Capnocytophaga ochrace

Capnocytophaga species感染症は、犬、猫咬傷・掻傷感染症の一つであり、これまで世界で200例以上の報告があります。本感染症は極めて稀ですが、発症した場合には急激に敗血症、DICに至り致死率は約30%にも及ぶとの報告もあ of Capnocytophaga Species brain abscess after anti-tumor necrosis factor-α. Patient developed Capnocytophaga Patient developed Capnocytophaga Species brain abscess after treatment course of adalimumab 40 mg twice monthly for more than one year

Capnocytophaga, a newly recognized genus of capnophilic gram-negative bacilli, is part of the normal oral flora. The capacity of Capnocytophaga to cause sepsis and local infections in both immunocompromised and. Capnocytophaga is a newly described genus of gram-negative bacteria which can cause serious oral and extraoral infections in the susceptible host. In the present study, sensitivity of Capnocytophaga spp. to the bactericidal properties of human serum was investigated. Laboratory strains representative of Capnocytophaga sputigena, C. ochracea, and C. gingivalis and seven oral isolates of. Diversity of Capnocytophaga species in children and description of Capnocytophaga leadbetteri sp. nov. and Capnocytophaga genospecies AHN8471. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 58(Pt 2 3.

Bacteria included in the genus Capnocytophaga typically are aerotolerant anaerobes with a requirement for significant quantities of carbon dioxide (CO 2) for initiation of growth—aerobic as well as anaerobic—and with the ability to form thin, spreading colonies (i.e., exhibit surface translocation) on solid media.. They are common inhabitants of dental plaque in the oral cavities of. Background: Capnocytophaga species are common oral pathogens and infrequent causes of systemic infection in patients with compromised host. The isolation of this organism suggests an oral source of. and Capnocytophaga species produce antigenically distinct IgA1 proteases, although three pairs of species produce pro-teases sharing antigenic determinants, i.e., Prevotella oralis and Prevotella veroralis, and Capnocyto-, an

Capnocytophaga species are among the normal flora of the oral cavity and are potential etiological agents in periodontitis with rapid rate of progression. The common Capnocytophaga species isolated from the human oral cavity include C. gingivalis, C. granulosa, C. hemolytica, C. leadbetteri, C. ochracea, and C. sputigena Diagnosing Capnocytophaga canimorsus Infections J. Michael Janda,* Margot H. Graves,* David Lindquist,* and Will S. Probert* We reviewed clinical and epidemiologic features of 56 human Capnocytophaga canimorsusisolates submitte Capnocytophaga species P. corporis P. denticola P. intermedia P. loescheii P. melaninogenica Porphyromonas P. asaccharolytica P. endodontalis P. gingivalis 胆汁感性、色素非産生 Prevotella P. bivia P. buccae P. buccalis 4. A genus of Gram negative, fusiform bacteria that require carbon dioxide for growth and exhibits gliding motility; associated with human periodontal disease; type species is C. ochracea (formerly Bactero Capnocytophaga species are gram-negative bacteria from the Bacteroidetes group. Species of these bacteria are isolated from the oral cavity and often cause periodontitis. Several species such as Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Capnocytophaga ochracea, and Capnocytophaga sputigena are human hosted while Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Capnocytophaga cynodegmi live in the mouth of dogs and cats

Capnocytophaga species are micro-aerophilic gram-negativebacilli. Themouthis a majorhabitat of these organisms, which are causative for peri-odontal infections. Clinical infections by these or-ganisms generally are limited to or Capnocytophaga canimorsus is the main human pathogen associated with dog bites; this organism causes septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, and rare ocular infections (3,4). Persons at increased risk of developing C. canimorsus infections include patients who have undergone a splenectomy and those who abuse alcohol Capnocytophaga gingivalis is a gram negative, mesophilic and non-sporulating rod-shaped bacteria implicated in opportunistic periodontal disease .In 1979, Leadbetter et al proposed the genus 'Capnocytophaga', to include three morphologically and physiologically distinct species: Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga gingivalis and Capnocytophaga sputigena One of those speciescapnocytophaga canimorsus, commonly found in dog and cat mouths ― can potentially cause serious infection when transmitted to humans. It's possible to test pets for the presence of the bacteria, but such tests usually aren't very helpful because an animal might have the bacteria one day but not have it the next, according to the CDC

カプノサイトファーガ感染症について|厚生労働省 - mhl

Signs and Symptoms of Capnocytophaga Infection

  1. The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs.
  2. Species A,Species Bの微細構造は,細胞壁が外膜,内膜,それらに狭まれた表層間隙の3層より成子典型的なグラム陰性菌の構造をしていた。そして,Species A,Species Bとも広い表層間隙を有していた点は,Holt らのCapnocytophaga属
  3. sp.は、「species」の略で、 種小名のこと。 「.」ピリオドは、単語を略してますって意味。 属名はわかるけど、 種小名まではわからないよーって時に使います。 チランジアの場合、 チランジア(Tillandsia)ってことまで

Capnocytophaga was found to be sensitive to several of the third-generation cephalosporins. To the best of the authors' knowledge, these are the first reported cases of endophthalmitis with Capnocytophaga species. Conclusio of Capnocytophaga species in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis than in healthy individuals[14,16,19,20] When the prevalence of individual species was considered, it could be seen that C. ochracea (6 66%) followed by C. Capnocytophaga granulosa and Capnocytophaga haemolytica: novel species in subgingival plaque Some 350 periodontal species have been cultivated and identified; however, it is estimated that this figure equates to only 50% of the total bacteria encountered in the subgingival region ( Socransky 1963 , Socransky & Haffajee 1994 ) Capnocytophaga are a genus of bacteria that have been found to be the causative organisms in a range of infections, including serious conditions such as bacteraemia, endocarditis and meningitis. This has been especially true amongst those with serious comorbidities and the immunocompromised populations. Although several species are known to cause human disease, historically, laboratories have. The genus Capnocytophaga is comprised of eight known species. Six of them are part of the human oral flora: C. gingivalis, C. granulosa, C. haemolytica, C. leadbetteri, C. ochracea and C.

In vitro susceptibility of Capnocytophaga species to

Capnocytophaga canimorsus Infection Prevention, Treatment

Diversity of Capnocytophaga species in children and description of Capnocytophaga leadbetteri sp. nov. and Capnocytophaga genospecies AHN8471. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 58 (Pt 2), 324-336. doi : 10.1099/ijs..65373 How to pronounce Capnocytophaga Loading... Autoplay When autoplay is enabled, a suggested video will automatically play next. Up next Medical Video Lecture: Sporothrix schenckii, Microbiology. animal bite associated Capnocytophaga species, which was used in all projects included in this thesis. In study I, we used our collection of n=22 isolates to evaluate the performance of the recently introduced MALDI-TOF and 13. Capnocytophaga synonyms, Capnocytophaga pronunciation, Capnocytophaga translation, English dictionary definition of Capnocytophaga. n. pl. ca·pit·u·la 1. A compact cluster of sessile flowers, often surrounded by involucra Capnocytophaga species are extremely rare as the causative organism of PD-related peritonitis. Based on a PubMed search, there have been only six cases of peritonitis caused by Capnocytophaga species in PD patients (Table 1 )

Capnocytophaga: Introduction Capnocytophaga: A bacterial infection caused by Capnocytophaga canimorsus which is often found in normal healthy cats and dogs. The infections tends to occur mainly in immunocompromised patients, alcoholics or patients who have chronic respiratory disease or have had their spleen removed Capnocytophaga & Gingivitis Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Gingivitis. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search. The genera Porphyromonas, Treponema.

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